Punjab Village during winters

Punjab is called the bread basket of India. A state in Northern Indian plains formed and irrigated by five perennial rivers originating from Himalayas. The land surface is deposited by the alluvial brought up by the rivers. The land is flat, devoid of any geographical features. Standing out in the open in a field you can feel the unending flatness meeting the horizon.

The farmers of the area are known for their hard working nature. Earlier the farming was largely non- mechanized. Bullocks and manual labor was used. Slowly to keep with the times machines like tractors, tubewells and other implements were introduced making the work faster and less manual.

There is hardly anytime of the year when any piece of land is fallow. One after the other crops are grown depleting the natural fertility of soil and making the water usage very high. Insecticides and fertilizers are required in high quantities to make up for loss of natural fertility. The crops have been diversified to vegetables and flowers in addition to the common rice, and wheat.    These are cash crops/

But still the scene in the countryside are beautiful in the winter. There is wheat growing, mustard flowers color the country yellow and tractors filled with cauliflower, carrots, Kinno, radishes and peas are frequently seen.

Let us see some pictures.

Budgies in our homes

Many a times we thought of keeping pets at home. Our preference was always on keeping a dog but it is not practical with our present circumstances. Being two old persons, it is very difficult. It has to be regularly taken out for walks not doing which will be an injustice to the animal. More difficult is the situation when both persons have to go out for somedays. Where to keep it then? We had this experience in the past when we had a beautiful Labrador as a pet. Unfortunately, it’s association with us was brief and it’s life was cut short. This incident also left a kind of fear and apprehension to keep the pet dog again.

So our choice fell on birds. We brought home a pair of budgies in a cage. Difference between birds and dogs as pets is that a dog forms a strong bond and share our moments of happiness and sorrow. Dog will never desert us and miss us when we are away and wait for the members of the family who have gone out and will be returning. Birds on the other hand, especially budgies, don’t form such attachment. Should they happen to fly out by accident from the cage, you cannot expect them to come back. They can be left provided they have enough food and water in the cage.

All day we cared for them. Taking the cage out in the summer evenings and keeping them inside in the cool. They were given the food purchased from the pet shop. They also like to nibble at the leaves of certain plants and trees like coriander and silver oak.

During the summer months one day their cage was kept hanging out. It was cleaned. Water and containers were cleaned. It so happened that one of the doors was left opened inadvertently. The male budgie came out. When it was found out, it was sitting on the top of cage and our effort to catch it scared it and it flew away and sat on a tree. We located it perched on a nearby tree but were helpless. We lost its track. Since these birds cannot endure the long flights, it must have been killed by the hawks which lurk there on these trees.

The female was left alone. Whole day it was making calls and seemed desperately missing its partner. We were also anguished and were at a loss as to what should be done. We considered many options like giving it to pet shop owner. Other was to find another male which should be compatible with it. After few days, we found one in one shop and brought it home. In the beginning, female would not allow it near and peck it angrily. But to our satisfaction they became friends and played and twittered together.

After somedays, the female began laying eggs. But since these were on the cage bottom sieve, these were broken by the female. After consulting some people having this experience, we brought one fired round clay pot with open top and one big hole carved on one side. This was fixed in the top of the cage.

Female began to survey it and inspect it. After few days both were going in, sitting and coming out. An egg was laid followed by two three more but for days on nothing was coming out of the. Female began sitting for long periods on the them. At last a day before Diwali festival, one of the eggs hatched and a very clumsy mass of flesh was there. That it was alive could be judged only from its shivering. The one after another three were there. There were still three more eggs remaining.

We were thinking how they will be fed but our fears were unfounded. The male who was now a father would eat the seeds and crushed them inside its gullet and then pass the liquified food to female who further churned it finer and fed it to the newborns. From morning till sunset it went on. The kids began growing and still very clumsy with no eyes and no plumage. I was surprised how the parents kept track of feeding each one. Six chicks jostling in a small space. But it is hard wired in their DNA and there is no need to learn. Meanwhile the other eggs hatched after a few days spacing. After fifteen days the eldest one had small plumage and eyes began opening. Others followed suit. Plumage became richer and one by one beginning with eldest began to take shape of the grown ups. We transferred them all to a bigger cage.

In addition to the normal shop bought food, we also fed them fresh green rice which I brought everyday from the fields nearby our home since the like the seed with cover intact. We also tried the wheat soaked overnight in hot water. They become habituated to it after few days of hesitancy. But here also they removed the outer coating to take only the core material.

When six chicks are growing in small space, the waste material accumulated inside the nest. But many a times, female frantically dived in and brought out the waste material and threw it away to keep the nest as clean as possible.

Another feature was that female never allowed the male to feed chick directly. He will only watch from the top of nest or gathering another round of seeds while female fed the chicks.

They began straining their necks out. Eldest one started fluttering the feathers. Then one day, when we removed the cover from the cage, we were surprised to find the first one sitting at the cage floor. It is very beautiful and have blue and green color. It began nibbling the seeds but would expect the easy way of being fed by its mother. But she was stern with it and only once in a while gave it food. But Another another problem cropped. The father began pecking it harshly and was scaring it constantly. We have to transfer it adjacent partition although with heavy heart. It fretted there and became very aggressive.

In the evening, we went out and returned after dark. I was surprised to find that the small one has gone back to the nest because how it flew there is hard to imagine. Another day second one only came down and after hopping here and there and eating the seed went back in the night.

It began to be cool weather because of November month. We have to leave the place for few days. Luckily our daughter who lives nearby was ready to help. We told her the procedures and eating times and food. She is managing them now. Only one which hatched in the last, remains in the nest. All others have left the nest to become independent.

Two lives have become eight now. It is the way of nature. Below are some pictures

Chessboard and Wheat Puzzle

Game of chess is a cerebral game. It is a game of strategy, advanced planning and endless possibilities. A chess player becomes so engrossed in it that he forgets about his other activities. Such was the condition of the main characters in the Satyajit Rays movie “Satranj ke Khilari”. The story is set in the reign if Nawab Wajid Ali of Lucknow and how by hook or crook the British East India Company took over the princely Avadh on the pretext that a king who is engrossed in licentious activities like dancing with nautch girls and singing cannot look after the well being of the subjects. This is mirrored in the addiction of two friends who oblivious of everything are always devising means to play the game somehow or the other.

The game is said to have originated in the Eastern India and its precursor was called Chaturanga having four limbs or the four divisions of the army represented by a piece. It then traveled to Persia where it was called Chatrang and when Moguls swayed the area, its name changed to Shatranj and it travelled to Southern Europe.
The board has 8 rows of 8 cells each. 64 cells in all. There are king, prime minister (queen in British version and now universally prevalent), two bishops, two knights and two rooks. They occupy the first row and second row is occupied by pawns when they play starts.
The original chess board was mathematically revolutionary, as reported by the infamous Wheat and chessboard problem. A common theory is that India’s development of the board, and chess, was likely due to India’s mathematical enlightenment involving the creation of the number zero.

Chessboard and Wheat Puzzle

The puzzle is about the inventor of chess in India by mathematician named Sessa or Sissa. He presented it to the ruler of the country, the ruler was elated and asked the inventor to choose his prize. The man, who was very clever, told the king that for the first square of the chess board, he would receive one grain of wheat, two for the second one, foimageur on the third one, and so forth, doubling the amount each time. The ruler, who did not understand the gravity of what was asked and who was not adept in mathematics laughed at the paltry prize. He was wrong as the numbers increase astronomically as the squares progress. However, when the treasurer took more than a week to calculate the amount of wheat, the ruler asked him for a reason for his slackness. The treasurer then gave him the result of the calculation, and explained that it would take more than all the assets of the kingdom to give the inventor the reward. The story ends with the inventor being beheaded.

I tried to calculate how much wheat it will be in the last square.

Going by the rule, the number of grains in first cell be 2^0, second 2^1, third 2^2 so 64th cell, the number of grains will be 2 ^63 (2 raise to power 63) which will amount to 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 grains
And weight of 1 grain is approximately =0.06479891 grams
So the weight of grains in the last square

=(9,223,372,036,854,775,808 * 0.06479891)/(1000x1000x1000000) =597664.4545 MMT !!!!!!!!!!!

Annual production of wheat in India in the year 2011-12 =94.88 MMT

At this rate, it will take 6299.1616 years for India to equal his demand even for the grains in the last cell not to talk of the vast numbers in the preceding cells.
Now you can imagine why the king who was at first laughing at the his demand, had him beheaded. Or should not the king had conceded and rewarded the inventor……