Thermodynamics is the most important branch of the science dealing with the energy, work and conversions of one form of energy into other forms.
It cuts across many branches of the courses like physics, chemistry and engineering. All the students in these streams have to come face to face with this subject.
Its laws have become so perfect that they can be bound into mathematical equations. First law of thermodynamics is concerning the conservation of energy.
Suppose there are two systems which are having energies A & B. If they are connected, then the energy of the resultant system shall be A+B.
But there is a catch. This law does not impose any restrictions on the donors and recipients of the energy. For example, we can heat the water by extracting (suppose we are having such an extracting machine) heat from the ice.
After all the total has to remain constant and sum of the energies of two systems. But the common experience is contrary to this. Heat always flow from higher temperature to lower temperature.
To address this difficulty, second law of thermodynamics was proposed. This takes into account the natural phenomena. Another thermodynamic function called “Entropy” was formulated. This is the measure of randomness of the system. All the systems in nature tends towards chaos or randomness.
Shivalik mountains have been suggested to be 16 to 5 million years old. Much of present day Himachal Pradesh is situated in these hills. Punjab, Haryana plains sit just below these hills.
This area has many perrenial rivers flowing through these states. Due to this, the area must have been rich in vegetation and plenty of water which had made it an ideal place for many animals to inhabit it.
In fact, a research conducted jointly by India-based Society for Archaeological & Anthropological Research (SAAR) and France’s National Scientific Research Center (CNRS) and department of Prehistory of the National Museum of Natural History has found rich cache of diverse fossils of fauna which is being dated back to 2.6 millions years claiming them to be the oldest fossils shadowing the ones found in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia which are said to be 2.58 million years old.
The excavations were carried out in the Masol village of Mohali which is situated in the foothills of Shivalik.
In fact, more than 2,000 fossils of different herbivores have been found by the team during digging. These include Stegodon, an ancient elephant with tusks up to four metres, and Sivatherium, a giant giraffe.
The study adds that before this find, the oldest sites were in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia dating back to 2.58 million years.The team has also found 14 fossils of Leptobos, pre-historic ancestors of modern-day cows that weighed up to 320 kilogrammes
These rare fossils, excavated between September 2009 and March 2015, were bubble-wrapped and dispatched to a French lab.
The team says that it is a multi disciplinary effort involving specialists from the field of geology, geomorphology, sedementology, physics, palaeontology, taphonomy. The research paper on these fossils has been called “Taphonomical studies of the Plio-Pleistocene Transition Fauna of Masol in Shivalik Frontal Range, Northwestern India”.
Due to the tectonic activity in this region, many fossils buried deeper have moved to shallower depths.
The scientists have already conducted paleo-magnetic dating electron spin resonance (ESR) tests on the fossils to know their age.
The Punjab government is planning to start eco-tourism trail of these villages in Shivalik Hills where fossils of wild camel, horses and bulls dating back to nearly three million years have been found.
Besides the scenic beauty and wild life of the area being major attractions, Siswan Dam site is picnic spot and can be developed further as a tourist destination.
Doctor Abdus Salam was awarded Nobel prize in physics in 1979 jointly with Glashow and Steven Weinberg. After Einstein, theoretical physicists all over the world are trying to unify all the physical forces like electricity, magnetism and forces residing inside a nucleus and gravity.
They have succeeded in unifying all except gravity which is defying all the efforts. Just as in Hinduism we believe that God is one but it’s manifestation are many. They also got the Nobel in this area of research.
He was born on 29 January 1926 in Santok Das in the Sahiwal District but grew up in Jhang at his grand parents place. Does the mention of the name ring bells in your heart? Yes it is the same place where Heer of Heer Ranjha immortal love belonged to.
The whole family was in the education. His father was an education officer in Punjab. The family had converted to Islam. They belonged to Ahmediyya sect which was declared by Zia-ul Haq as non Muslim.
When he was taken to be admitted into school, teachers found him fit for fourth class. At age 14, Salam scored the highest marks ever recorded for the matriculation examination at the Punjab University. He won a full scholarship to the Government College University of Lahore, Punjab State.
His father wanted him to join indian Civil Services. He could not because of his poor eyesight which was a mandatory requirement.
He won scholarship from Cambridge university and completed his BA degree with honours in Mathematics and Physics in 1949. Although he received offer to do research there but he returned to Jhang.
He taught is Pakistan both mathematics and physics. He started teaching at the Imperial College, London which he accepted. The 30-year-old, youngest ever assistant professor of Imperial College, London, was a Pakistani now.
He was brought back by Zayin Khan and made the scientific advisor. He drafted the scientific policy of Pakistan. Founded Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission of Pakistan.
Although he was once a non entity in Pakistan due to his being from Ahmediyya sect, his heart was always in Pakistan and he arranged for scholarships, which helped hundreds of Pakistani scientists’ to educate themselves abroad. His contributions are innumerable.
Although, he was highly respected scientist abroad he was an outsider for Pakistan. All efforts were made by the future administrators who buckled under religion to ease out his memory from Pakistan. He was offered the nationality of all those countries whose asylum seekers, today, lead the criticism on his faith.
After he had received the Nobel Prize, he chose to visit Lahore, In a public gathering, someone commented that Jhang was initially famous for Heer and now will be famed for Abdus Salam’s Nobel Prize. He remarked that there are hundreds of Nobel Laureates but only one Heer!!
There is no doubt that USA laps up the talent from all over the world. US leads the tally of Nobel prize winners which were introduced in 1901 and Economics prize introduced in 1968. Since then 585 Nobel prizes have been awarded to 922 winners out of which only 49 are women. Youngest and oldest
Youngest person to receive the Nobel is Malala Yousafzai who received it at the age of 17 years in 2014. Although she belongs to Pakistan, her country may hardly be happy over her winning it. Oldest Nobel laureate is Leonid Hurwicz of US who received the Nobel in 2004 for economics at the age of 90 years. Countries at the top of list. USA:
Medicine: 101 U.K.
Medicine: 32 Germany
Medicine: 17 France
Medicine: 11 Sweden
Medicine: 8 Major areas of research leading to Nobel
In physics is particle physics and in chemistry is biochemistry. Research in genetics most hot topic and in economics it is micro economics. Nobel winners of Indian origin
Ronald Ross: Medicine 1902
Some people are bitten by bug of optimism. This is because they occupy the higher echelons of hierarchy in some organization. This is a part of pep talk by the managers towards juniors. This bug bites them and they want to impress it upon the subordinates to be optimist and do the work sincerely and without any questions about the veracity of their projects.
In different religions of the world, every concept has two counterparts. Nature abounds in complements. Man and woman, Yin and Yang, Shiva and Shakti. So much so that Shiva took the form of half man-half woman to show that one is not complete without the other. The life propagates through the complements. Without woman man cannot reproduce. A Car cannot run on one wheel.
Also, there is law of conservation for everything. I surmise that not only matter, energy, momentum follow these laws, happiness-sadness, optimism-pessimism also follows these fundamental laws. By this logic, when you talk of making many people optimistic, at the same time you are making equal number of them pessimistic. As positive charges cannot live alone, north pole and south pole of magnet cannot exist separately, optimism cannot exist alone.
So, don’t be lured by such attitude. Do your work sincerely without the need of any advice. Oh! I am also becoming a pedagogue.