I have returned back to the place where we were born, grew up, went to school in our own village of Manimajra, then to college and university in Chandigarh. Graduation and post graduation became possible because of the proximity of Chandigarh. Had this not been the case, there was no chance of my getting higher education in science. Even at that time, some 60 years back, our village was the largest of villages around Chandigarh. There were agricultural lands all around the village. The fields were irrigated with the water from Ghaggar river which flowed nearby emanating from Shivalik hills. There are two very large temples of Godess Mansa Devi where people from all over the nearby places flocked during the annual fares. There are many historical Gurudwaras in the area. One is inside the village is called Mata Raj Kaur Gurudwara after the pious lady who left her husband Guru Ram Rai after she felt the her husband has tweaked some lines from Guru Granth Sahib during recital. Ram Rai established himself with his disciples and properties around Dehradun. Another famous Gurudwara is on the periphery of Panchkula and is called Nadda Sahib. Here tenth Guru Gobind Singh stayed during his journey from Paonta Sahib to Anandpur Sahib in Punjab. The person who played the host was known as Naddu and after his name is the name of the place and Gurudwara. There is another Gurudwara called Bawli (step well) sahib located in the village Dhakauli. With the education which I acquired, I found a job in ONGC: India’s leading E&P petroleum company. Since it’s operations extend all over India, it provided me a chance to work in different places like Dehradun, Silchar jutting with Bangladesh and located in South Assam, Sibsagar in upper Assam which was once the capital of mighty Ahom kings which gave the place the name Assam and Mumbai the city maximum and economic capital of India. Assam the North Eastern state of India possesses unparalleled natural beauty. Since the industrialisation has not spread in that area, the region I dun polluted. When you fly over the area, you find tea gardens, Areca nut tress, bamboo groves running over miles and miles. There are rivers like Brahamaputra and Barak rivers which provide the best fish. Whatever vegetables are available are grown on the river beds and grown naturally and are thus purely organic. This provided me the opportunity to watch these diverse cultures and people from close quarters and try to understand their cultures in different points of time. Whereas the Assam took the mind to older quaint times with minimal pollution, natural beauty and innocent people, there was Mumbai which was so fast paced, situated on Arabian Sea with beautiful beaches, coconut palm trees, pav bhaji and bada pav and it’s incessant rains which never stopped in the monsoons. I for the first time came to learn that not only paper document are parcelled but eatables like food from hotels and coconut cream etc is also parcelled for home delivery. Mumbai has developed a peculiar practical language which is the result of mixing of languages from all over India which migrant people to Mumbai has carried along with them. A lot has changed here and it should not be any surprise. Change in Mumbai is minimal now as it has become saturated. Here a complete change in demography also seemed to have taken place. There has been influx of people from states around it and also UP and Bihar. Crime which was almost unheard of is now very rampant. This is due to the high aspirations, comfortable lifestyle and sky rocketing prices of living spaces, everyone wants to become rich overnight.
Almost all the elements in the universe are composed of atoms siblings though are chemically equivalent but have slightly different weight. Atom is composed of equal number of electrons and protons to make it electrically neutral and stable. There are also neutrons which are electrically neutral but have weight almost equal to the proton. Protons and neutrons reside in the centre of atom and called jointly nucleus. This is due to the different numbers of neutrons in these atoms. More the neutrons more shall be the weight of the isotope.
Oxygen has two prominent isotopes. The lighter one contains 8 neutrons and the heavier one contains 10 neutrons this is exactly 2 neutron heavier. The ratio of the heavier atoms to the lighter ones is 1:500 or 0.2%. The number and ratio of the oxygen isotopes is constant if water was present at one place only. But the distribution changes due to physical and biological processes. These two phenomena fractionated the distribution. The oxygen atoms are labeled 18O and 16O.
Since heavier oxygen has lower tendency to evaporate than the lighter and higher tendency to precipitate, the distribution changes continuously with the movement and phase changes of the water.
Originally in the sea water there was a given ratio. Now suppose sun heats the sea and evaporation takes place initiating the water cycle. But notice, the ratio of heavier atoms to lighter atoms will change both is the sea water left behind as well as the vapours. Sea water will become richer in heavier isotope and vapours poorer. Now these vapours rise and starts migrating towards the poles. Temperature gradually begins to fall triggering the precipitation but again further fractionation will take place. In the beginning, some of the heavier atoms will precipitate thus further depleting the pole ward moving water vapours in heavier atoms. So when the snow will start falling, it will be containing the least numbers of heavier atoms.
The snow will settle down. Future years will bring more snow, thus snowflakes shall begin to compact at the lower layers. Snowflakes contain roughly 80% air. After compaction, the air will be expelled and firn will form having only about 20% air. Ultimately lowest layers shall become ice containing only 2% air or less. Layer upon layer will build.
The snow precipitated in the relatively warmer climates shall have more heavier oxygen than the snow precipitated in cooler climates. This phenomena is used to measure the temperature at which a particular layer was deposited. This provides a tool for temperature records in the history of the earth.
For this purpose, scientists take out the continuous cylindrical cores of the ice and measure the abundance of heavier oxygen atoms relative to the lighter ones using ratio recording mass spectrometer and plot this against depth. From the calibration curves with temperature, scientists are able to measure the temperature records.
Knowing the past climatic history of the earth can help in understanding the ice ages epochs, chemical and biological reactions and thus the abundance or otherwise of minerals like petroleum.
Thus the ice deposited over millions of years preserves the memories of the climate in the past. They have been able to recreate the 4 million years record of temperatures.