1905: Annus Mirabilis of Albert Einstein 

Annus mirabilis is a Latin phrase that means “wonderful year”, “miraculous year” or “amazing year”. This term was originally used to refer to the year 1666, and today is used to refer to several years during which events of major importance are remembered.

Albert Einstein singlehandedly added 1905 as another Annus Mirabilis. In this year, his creativity peaked and he made the revolutionary scientific discoveries. He was just 26 years old. During that year he did:

March: Proved that the light consists of photons thus proving the quantum nature of the light.

May: Proved the existence of the atom.

June: Special Theory of Relativity, which forced the laws of motion by another great physicist Newton as the corollary with the objects moving at lower speeds.

November: The most conscise and beautiful equation relating mass and energy. Proving that mass and energy are two names of the same thing. That enormous amounts of energy are condensed to make small amounts of mass. In other words, enormous amounts of energy are contained in the mass.


And after that he became a superstar



Whom shall you call the Greatest?

It is awe inspiring even to think how the thought process of humans evolved. At the stage of evolution we are, it all seems so easy to speak, read and recall the past. In the very beginning when language was not evolved, it must had been hell difficult for the homo sapiens to communicate. Similarly, when hunting must had become very tiring, and they were hungry, they must have tried to eat some leaves or fruits with many of them with fatal results. But they were keeping track of the events and learning to discriminate between what was good and bad for them.  It took thousands years of ups and downs for humans to reach the stage we are at. Slowly and slowly, the mistakes began to shrink , resulting in lower number of causalities. Each coming generation was thus more intelligent and more suitable to adapt to the environment. It became even more easier when language was invented and after that writing. Now we have so much knowledge base at our disposal that we have to be very discreet about our selection.

In chemistry, there is one most respected figure whose name is Kekule. Without any advanced instruments, relying only on the laborious chemical substitutions, he elucidated the structure of the benzene which is the simplest and most symmetrical aromatic molecule.  His three students won the Nobel prizes in chemistry. Van’t Hoff for stereo chemistry,  Emil Fisher for esterification reaction, Bayer for synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and indigo.

So can we say that today’s man is more intelligent than the previous stages of evolution? I don’t think so because each successive generation is using the capabilities of present generation and building on it for advancement. So we cannot compare who was greater among Einstein and Newton. Einstein had at his disposal the Newton’s work to build on or at least think on the different lines. He invented the relativity which encompass the Newton’s Laws as the corollaries. Similarly, Newton is said to have proceeded on the Johannes Kepler’s laws. It is another matter that some persons are lucky to get the credit due to their popularity, their personality. There are the same time many a great scientists like E.C.G. Sudarshan who do not get what recognition they deserve. Then there was Riemann to provide mathematical tools to Einstein. Again I recall what the Indian great classical singer Bhimsen Joshi told an interviewer that every artist is a kind of thief but he molds the material according to his or her ability and product may be better in case the artist is really a genius.

Dr.Stephan Gould Seemed to be right

Charles Darwin’s work on the evolution theory is akin to the Laws of Motion by Newton. They stood like indestructible rocks for several decades. Yet as the new evidence gathers, chinks or limitations in these laws have been becoming visible. Einstein came and with his theory of relativity, made the laws of motion into approximation of the true laws at lower speeds. These laws breakdown and cannot explain phenomena at the extremities at both ends, at the sub atomic level as well as the parsec levels. Not only that, it is now doubted that Einstein’s theories which are based on the premise that speed of light is the ultimate barrier are correct or can explain all the observation.

Similarly, the Darwin’s theory has been found to have chinks. Its main postulate is that in nature evolution is taking place gradually. Dr.Gould amassed the available data and announced that things did not happen in gradual  manner but in bursts with periods of lull or nonconformities in between. There were periods of intense activity in which many new species appeared and others got decimated. Now with the passage of every day, this theory seems to gaining strength.

Most obvious is the case of weather. Areas which were deserts are experiencing lots of rainfall, the areas which were previously most rainy are becoming devoid of the rain. Rains fall in torrents of such intensity that it seems that the land will submerge into the sea and it will like the olden times when all of  Indian subcontinent was under the sea. Then there will be periods of complete dry spells. So we have the perfect recipe for the disaster. First face the floods, then diseases in the aftermath, destruction of crops and increase in hunger. Oh  God, was it the fate of the Earth when it was born?