Oil and Gas

Although researchers all over the world are working on the technology to harness the alternate resources of energy like solar, wind, hydropower and nuclear energy, the conventional resources of oil, gas and coal are still the major resources of energy. These resources are fast declining since they are non renewable. Rapid industrialization and urbanization are responsible for this. In addition, these conventional resources add pollutants to the atmosphere.

Presently the positon of energy producers is like this

World’s Biggest Oil & Gas Companies
(Production in millions barrels per day)

  1. SAUDI ARAMCO: 12
  2. GAZPROM: 8.33.
  3. NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL: 6
  4. EXXONMOBIL: 4.7
  5. ROSNEFT: 4.7
  6. PETROCHINA: 4
  7. BRITISH PETROLEUM: 3.7
  8. ROYAL DUTCH SHELL: 3.7
  9. PETROLEOS MEXICANOS: 3.6
  10. KUWAIT PETROL CORP: 3.4

Top 5 countries with highest Oil Reserves
1. Saudi Arabia:
265 billion barrels (19.1%)
Remaining reserves: 72.4 years
2. Venezuela:
211 billion barrels(15.3%)
Remaining reserves: 234.1years
3. Iran:
137 billion barrels(9.9%)
Remaining reserves: 88.4 years
4. Iraq:
115 billion barrels (8.4%)
Remaining reserves: 128.1 years
5. Kuwait:
102 billion (7.3%)
Remaining reserves: 110.9 years

Global Energy Sources
Fossil Fuels
Oil: 33%
Coal: 30%
Natural Gas: 24%
Renewable and Nuclear Energy
Hydropower: 7%
Nuclear Power: 4%
Renewable energy: 2.7%

(The data is from visual capitalist)

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Monkeys

Hanumant or Hanuman is considered as the rare combination of wisdom and strength. He was loyal to the core to his Lord Rama and played a stellar role in Rama’s war against the demon Ravana who had abducted Rama’s wife Sita. In fact, many demons belonging to Ravana harassed the ascetics living in the jungles and Rama destroyed them. This enraged Ravana who to take the revenge abducted Sita coming in the guise of a ascetic coming to beg alms.

While Rama and and his younger brother Lakhsman were roaming from one place to another in the jungles in search of Sita, they chanced upon Hanuman who from then on put him at their disposal. He did many Herculean tasks like lifting the entire mountain and flying on the straits going to Lanka to locate Sita and reassure her. His heart was completely immersed in the devotion towards Rama.

It is said that his army consisted of monkeys. He himself is shown as half monkey and half man. This seems to be an incredulous idea. But I don’t know why Monkeys are called his Sena. These creatures have a very destructive mind. They snatch eatables from inattentive people, root out the plants and many a times attack the people. Here in our colony we are wary of them as hundreds of them swoop on the colony every morning and make the life of residents¬† a nightmare. Children are terrified and you have to be very careful about them when bringing milk and eatables. They leap into balconies and if doors are open get inside the homes, eat the fruits and other eatables like groundnuts. More than eating the things, they pull out the plants which have been tended so long for growing and blossoming.

In Kerala, however, monkeys have been trained to pluck the coconut fruits from the coconut palm which is a difficult work for human. Similarly, there are entertainers in India especially in rural areas which use monkeys in the roles of man and woman.

They can’t be his clan because He is a benign God who is a rescuer and harbinger of good luck.

History is too Complex

To understand the events as they happened in the past is one of the most complex exercises undertaken by the scholars. It is almost impossible to be unbiased and unconcerned while reconstructing the events. So history is mine, yours and other peoples’. As we go further and further back in the past, the evidence becomes meager and meager and assumptions and conjectures and evaluators ability become crucial factors.

Today archaeologists and historians are using latest scientific tools for age determination, composition of the materials used in pottery and heat treatment it was given. These pieces of evidence along with the written documents like holy books bring us to the realistic picture of the past. I was reading excerpts of a talk given by India‘s most respected historian Romila Thapar about who were the Aryans and how they came to India. After going through this article, I was awe struck with the knowledge of the lady. She has busted may myths about the theories about Aryans which are being used by political people in their own ways to further their cause.

She very rightly concludes in the end that these people did not come as a deluge and swept away the existing civilizations to the South. They were pastoral people who migrated into India in slow stream, in what is called leap frogging. They coexisted with the local people. Both contributed to the culture of each other and intermarried also. As the rivers of the Punjab, which are very crucial for the cattle owners, shifted their paths very rapidly, they also shifted towards Gangetic plains for pastures and spread eastwards clinging close to the rivers for their existence. Their competition and struggles were for controlling the more and more cattle and land.

It also came to the knowledge that Avesta of Iran and Rigveda has many things and names of places and river name in common with only difference of substitution of H in place of S used in Rigveda. For example Sapt Sindhu is written as Hapt Hindu. Really the interpretation is fascinating and magical. Another book I was just ruminating through is about Somnatha temple’s history as told by different schools of thoughts and people.

Smallest Koran

A copy of the Muslim holy book, the Koran, kept at Ningxia Museum in northwest China‘s Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, has been identified as the smallest Koran in the world.
koran.jpg
Weighing 1.1g, with a length of 19.6 mm, width of 13.2 mm, and thickness of 6.1 mm, the Koran is covered with mauve kraft paper with ethnic designs, the Egyptian national emblem and Arabic text reading “This is a worshipful Alcoran, only people with clean mind and body can carry it, Islamic Calendar 1312.” (1892 A.D.)

Experts noted that though small, the Koran is delicately packed with clear Arabic print. The book was preserved in a small iron box.

He Xinyu, a researcher from Ningxia Museum said that the mini Koran was carried by a Chinese Muslim from Mecca in present-day Saudi Arabia to Ningxia, but it had no historical provenance.

All signs indicated that the book came to Ningxia before 1949. It was excavated in 1959 and has since stayed in the Ningxia Museum except when it has been on exhibition tours.

The Koran was appraised as a State-level cultural relic in 1996 by the State Bureau of Cultural Relics.

He said that the Ningxia Koran was much smaller in size and weight than the Koran discovered in Zhengzhou in central China’s Henan Province, which was listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the smallest in the world.

This is taken from the following page

http://english.people.com.cn/200205/17/eng20020517_95885.shtml

Mr. Hanif Choudhary who lives in Silchar district of Assam also claims to be in possession of the smallest copy of Koran, smaller than the one in Iran. The copy was brought to India by his uncle while he was serving in British Army in the Iran. He wants the copy to be registered for Guinness book.