Desires unfullfilled due to religious bigotry 

Guru Nanak, the first Guru and founder of Sikh religion, had two constant companions namely Bala and Mardana. Mardana played Rabab while Guru sang. He was a Muslim. Guru preached to the world love, compassion, and communal harmony. He also enlightened the people about the falsehood spread by some religious groups both Muslims and Hindus. It was all based on solid logic and illustrated through simple examples.

Mardana playing Rabab (illustration)

The future generations of Mardana remained attached to the succeeding Gurus of Sikhs. Of them was Bhai Ghulam Mohammad Chand, who lived in Lahore Pakistan and breathed his last on 29th April 2015 after illness.

Although he died with one unfulfilled desire. It was to recite kirtan in the Golden Temple at Amritsar. His request in 2008  was declined by Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) on the grounds that he was not a Sikh who was not baptized a rule that was enacted in 1947.

He has performed Kirtans in many Gurudwaras both in Pakistan and abroad. He was the sixth generation of Bhai Sadha and Bhai Madha, who sang during the lifetimes of ninth and tenth Guru Teg Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh.

His father Bhai Sunder Giani was one of the last rababis to perform in Darbar Sahib (Golden Temple) before 1947. Navtej Kaur Purewal, deputy director, South Asia Institute, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London also sponsored Ghulam Mohammad’s historic visit to the UK in 2011 and also wrote a research paper on the History of the Rababi Tradition of Shabad Kirtan.

Born in Rajasansi village near Amritsar in 1927, Bhai Ghulam Mohammad had migrated to Pakistan.

bhai chand
Bhai Ghulam Mohammad Chand

England-based Punjabi writer Amarjit Chandan, said, “Bhai Ghulam virtually died the day he was not allowed to perform kirtan in Darbar Sahib in 2008 for not being an `Amritdhari’. They didn’t know his forefather Bhai Mardana was not one either. But he was Baba Nanak’s true and first Sikh, his lifelong companion and rababi.“

Such was the pain that he carried after the refusal to perform kirtan in the Darbar Sahib that in an interview with Purewal in 2011, he said, “Who bothered to ask whether we were Gursikh (baptized Sikhs) in those days (in the days of Gurus)? Were my ancestors Gursikhs? Did they wear the `dastaar’ (turban) and show the signs of being a Sikh? No. But that never stopped them from having a passion for music and their work… Those people (the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee that manage gurdwaras in Punjab) have a short vision…“

You can listen to his shabad kirtan from the youtube links below

Bhini Rainarie

 Aawal Alla Noor Upaye

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Milestones in Food Technology

18000 B.C.

Pottery vessels

Invention of pottery vessels. The earliest vessels were probably used just for cooking before the development of impermeable ceramics made them suitable for long-term storage. (“Dishwasher safe” is, however, still a work in progress.)

7500 B.C.

Agricultural revolution

The beginning of the agricultural revolution. Raising crops allowed people to shift away from a migratory existence. And with our feet up after a good meal, all sorts of other ideas started to occur to us, setting the stage for civilizations to develop.

6000 B.C.

Irrigation

The regular flooding of the Nile begat the earliest form of artificial irrigation: basin irrigation, in which water channels were allowed to flood but prevented from draining.

2500 B.C.

Pesticides

The Sumerians create the first pesticide, in the form of sulfur, which was dusted on crops. (No historical evidence is available on whether this was followed by a demand for appropriate cuneiform-tablet labeling.)

1500 B.C.

Aquaculture

The development of aquaculture in China focused on carp, leading to the accidental creation of the goldfish and the later emergence of the concomitant toilet-side funeral service.

475

The horse collar

After its invention in China, the introduction of the horse collar to Europe about 400 years later led to the horse becoming the go-to source of animal labor, replacing oxen as plow animals and leading to higher food production levels.

900 — 1300

Crop rotation

Sustainable agriculture took a huge leap forward with the introduction of three-field crop rotation, resulting in the one fact about medieval farming that modern schoolchildren are likely to retain into adulthood.

1799

Steam-powered farm machines

The slow industrialization of agriculture started with the introduction of fixed steam-powered machinery for threshing wheat. Making this machinery more and more portable would lead to the first farm tractors.

1810

Canning

Glass bottles were initially used for canning, but it is Philippe de Girard’s invention of the tin can that really put this food technology on the map. (The invention is often attributed to de Girard’s French friend Peter Durand, who secured the English patent on de Girard’s behalf, as France and England were inconveniently at war at the time.)

1836

Gas stoves

The first gas stove factory opens. The stoves give chefs a much greater degree of temperature control in cooking but would ultimately lead to the deep charcoal-versus-propane barbeque schism.

1849

Artificial flavors

The advent of organic chemistry opened the door to artificial flavors, although not without some misfires, such as the promotion of nitrobenzene, once considered usable as a replacement for bitter almonds in confectionary with “perfect safety.” Alas, it’s now known to be a toxin capable of causing kidney, liver, and brain damage.

1851

Refrigeration

Artificial refrigeration made it possible to warehouse food for long periods of time and transport it over previously impossible distances, such as with the SS Dunedin, the first refrigerated cargo ship to be commercially successful. In 1882 it carried meat from New Zealand to London.

1855

Can opener

Forty-five years after the invention of the tin can, the other shoe drops with the invention of the can opener.

1864

Pasteurization

The introduction of pasteurization was a huge leap forward for food safety, if something of a sad moment for cheese gourmets.

1879

Artificial sweeteners

Saccharin, the world’s first artificial sweetener, is discovered by accident when chemist Constantin Fahlberg forgets his parents’ advice and doesn’t wash his hands properly before eating.

1889

Instant coffee

Recent research shows that instant coffee, the bane and blessing of modern office life, was first created by David Strang in New Zealand—not, as previously believed, in 1901 by Satori Kato in Chicago.

18000 B.C.

Pottery vessels

Invention of pottery vessels. The earliest vessels were probably used just for cooking before the development of impermeable ceramics made them suitable for long-term storage. (“Dishwasher safe” is, however, still a work in progress.)

7500 B.C.

Agricultural revolution

The beginning of the agricultural revolution. Raising crops allowed people to shift away from a migratory existence. And with our feet up after a good meal, all sorts of other ideas started to occur to us, setting the stage for civilizations to develop.

6000 B.C.

Irrigation

The regular flooding of the Nile begat the earliest form of artificial irrigation: basin irrigation, in which water channels were allowed to flood but prevented from draining.

2500 B.C.

Pesticides

The Sumerians create the first pesticide, in the form of sulfur, which was dusted on crops. (No historical evidence is available on whether this was followed by a demand for appropriate cuneiform-tablet labeling.)

1500 B.C.

Aquaculture

The development of aquaculture in China focused on carp, leading to the accidental creation of the goldfish and the later emergence of the concomitant toilet-side funeral service.

475

The horse collar

After its invention in China, the introduction of the horse collar to Europe about 400 years later led to the horse becoming the go-to source of animal labor, replacing oxen as plow animals and leading to higher food production levels.

900 — 1300

Crop rotation

Sustainable agriculture took a huge leap forward with the introduction of three-field crop rotation, resulting in the one fact about medieval farming that modern schoolchildren are likely to retain into adulthood.

1799

Steam-powered farm machines

The slow industrialization of agriculture started with the introduction of fixed steam-powered machinery for threshing wheat. Making this machinery more and more portable would lead to the first farm tractors.

1810

Canning

Glass bottles were initially used for canning, but it is Philippe de Girard’s invention of the tin can that really put this food technology on the map. (The invention is often attributed to de Girard’s French friend Peter Durand, who secured the English patent on de Girard’s behalf, as France and England were inconveniently at war at the time.)

1836

Gas stoves

The first gas stove factory opens. The stoves give chefs a much greater degree of temperature control in cooking but would ultimately lead to the deep charcoal-versus-propane barbeque schism.

1849

Artificial flavors

The advent of organic chemistry opened the door to artificial flavors, although not without some misfires, such as the promotion of nitrobenzene, once considered usable as a replacement for bitter almonds in confectionary with “perfect safety.” Alas, it’s now known to be a toxin capable of causing kidney, liver, and brain damage.

1851

Refrigeration

Artificial refrigeration made it possible to warehouse food for long periods of time and transport it over previously impossible distances, such as with the SS Dunedin, the first refrigerated cargo ship to be commercially successful. In 1882 it carried meat from New Zealand to London.

1855

Can opener

Forty-five years after the invention of the tin can, the other shoe drops with the invention of the can opener.

1864

Pasteurization

The introduction of pasteurization was a huge leap forward for food safety, if something of a sad moment for cheese gourmets.

1879

Artificial sweeteners

Saccharin, the world’s first artificial sweetener, is discovered by accident when chemist Constantin Fahlberg forgets his parents’ advice and doesn’t wash his hands properly before eating.

1889

Instant coffee

Recent research shows that instant coffee, the bane and blessing of modern office life, was first created by David Strang in New Zealand—not, as previously believed, in 1901 by Satori Kato in Chicago.

1892

Petroleum-powered tractor

The invention of the petroleum-powered tractor would sweep away the centuries-long association of horses and farming in a just a few decades, and so inspire several poignant James Herriot stories.

1893

Electric toasters

Although beginning a breakfast revolution, early electric toasters had a habit of melting their heating elements.

1893

Electric toasters

Although beginning a breakfast revolution, early electric toasters had a habit of melting their heating elements.

1893

Electric stove

The electric stove was a breakout hit of the Chicago World’s Fair, as part of the Electric Kitchen Exhibit. “Kitchen of the Future!” exhibits have remained a fixture of such fairs ever since.

1913

Haber-Bosch process

The Haber-Bosch process for producing ammonia allowed nitrogen-based fertilizer to be synthesized on an industrial scale. The result was incredible growth of the food supply—globally, 40 percent of the protein in our diets is due to the Haber-Bosch process—which in turn fueled human population growth.

1927

Sliced bread

Setting a new benchmark for bright ideas, Otto Frederick Rohwedder invents a machine for slicing loaves.

1930

Frozen food

The fruits of refrigeration are brought home with the first retail sales of prefrozen food, laying the groundwork for its apotheosis 53 years later, in the form of the Hot Pocket.

1930 — 1940

Battery cages

Originally intended to improve the welfare of chickens, the introduction of tightly confining battery cages in the 1930s led to abuses that has resulted in many countries banning them in recent years.

1939

DDT

DDT’s effectiveness as a pesticide is discovered. Following World War II, it is applied worldwide. Later, its use is severely restricted after its environmental toxicity becomes evident.

1947 — 1949

Food extruders

By cooking and shaping food simultaneously, extruders made the mass production of many modern snacks, cereals, and processed cheeses possible. This forever transforms the eating habits of children left to fend for themselves on Saturday mornings while their parents try to get a bit of a lie-in.

1947

Microwave ovens

Two years after radar engineer Percy Spencer discovers a melted chocolate bar in his pocket after working on an active antenna, the first microwave ovens go on sale, another seminal step toward the creation of Hot Pockets.

1951

Animal antibiotics

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves the use of antibiotics in animals, including prophylactic use in feed. This looks to have been another bad idea, with current concerns about drug resistance prompting FDA attempts to reduce the use of animal antibiotics.

1954

Teflon

Teflon was discovered in 1938, but it wasn’t until the 1950s that it was used to coat frying pans. Shortly thereafter, “Use the plastic spatula!” would become a universal cri de coeur in kitchens around the world.

1957

Irradiated food

The first commercially irradiated foods are sausage spices produced by a plant in Germany. The process was banned by the German government in 1959. However, the technology was taken up elsewhere, ultimately allowing irradiated apples to provide the best joke in the 2002 zombie-apocalypse classic 28 Days Later.

1958

Instant noodles

With Japan still suffering from postwar food shortages, Momofuku Ando invents instant noodles as an alternative to bread, feeding generations of college students, editorial assistants, and open-source programmers.

1961

Asceptic packaging

Tetra Pak launches its aseptic packaging. Combined with the later introduction of the Tetra Brik, it had a huge effect on how liquid foodstuffs were stored and distributed, despite occasionally drenching consumers struggling to tear open the packaging correctly.

1966

Green Revolution

The International Rice Research Institute, in the Philippines, breeds the IR8 strain. This “miracle rice” helps kick off the agricultural green revolution in developing countries, which involves modern farming techniques, including the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides.

1968

Freeze-dried ice cream

Apollo 7 is the first—and last—NASA mission to take freeze-dried ice cream into outer space, creating a staple of science museum shops everywhere.

1969

The kitchen computer

The recipe-storing Honeywell 316 Kitchen Computer is the first computer ever offered to consumers. Nobody buys one, but marketeers continue to tout the virtues of recipe retrieval throughout the home-computer revolution of the 1980s.

1972

Remote sensing

The first Landsat satellite is launched to perform remote sensing of agricultural and other resources from orbit.

1983

Hot Pockets

Hot Pockets are introduced. Sadly, it will be another 15 years before your humble timeline compiler moves to the United States and discovers the joys contained within the microwave crisping sleeve.

1991

Lean, finely textured beef

Beef Products Inc. gets the okay to sell lean, finely textured beef, later known derisively as “pink slime.”

1992

Molecular Gastronomy

The molecular gastronomy movement kicks off at a scientific workshop in Sicily, Italy. Agar, once just the gunk used to grow bacteria in petri dishes, now gets a starring role in TV cooking shows.

1994

Genetically modified food

The Flavr Savr tomato is the first genetically modified food to be licensed for human consumption. It is too costly to produce profitably.

1996

Roundup Ready

Genetically modified to be herbicide resistant, Roundup Ready soybean plants are introduced by Monsanto, provoking protest and controversy, especially in Europe.

2000

In vitro edible meat

The first in vitro edible meat (goldfish muscle) is grown as a possible food supply for astronauts on long missions. Astronauts are silent on whether they would have preferred the freeze-dried ice cream research to have continued instead.

2002

Rice genome

The genome of rice is sequenced, revealing that rice plants have more genes than human beings.

2007

Printed food

3-D printers are used to make the first printed food, hopefully marking the first step toward Star Trek–style food replicators.

1892

Petroleum-powered tractor

The invention of the petroleum-powered tractor would sweep away the centuries-long association of horses and farming in a just a few decades, and so inspire several poignant James Herriot stories.

1892

Petroleum-powered tractor

The invention of the petroleum-powered tractor would sweep away the centuries-long association of horses and farming in a just a few decades, and so inspire several poignant James Herriot stories.

1892

Petroleum-powered tractor

The invention of the petroleum-powered tractor would sweep away the centuries-long association of horses and farming in a just a few decades, and so inspire several poignant James Herriot stories.

1892

Petroleum-powered tractor

The invention of the petroleum-powered tractor would sweep away the centuries-long association of horses and farming in a just a few decades, and so inspire several poignant James Herriot stories.

1892

Petroleum-powered tractor

The invention of the petroleum-powered tractor would sweep away the centuries-long association of horses and farming in a just a few decades, and so inspire several poignant James Herriot stories.

1892

Petroleum-powered tractor

The invention of the petroleum-powered tractor would sweep away the centuries-long association of horses and farming in a just a few decades, and so inspire several poignant James Herriot stories.

Vegetable Dyes

Third most important group of dyes is the Vegetables dyes group. Although they can be obtained from almost any plant but most important were madder, woad, and indigo.
Madder (Rubia tinctorum),

Madder Plant

a bright red dye, comes from a plant of the same name also known as “dyer’s root.” Though its origin is lost in antiquity, it was used to dye the wrappings on Egyptian mummies. It is said that Alexander the Great used madder to help him defeat the Persians in 350 B.C. He had many of his soldiers dye their cloaks with splotches of red and stagger onto the battlefield. As the jubilant Persians fell on the “badly wounded” enemy, they were soundly defeated. Madder appeared in Europe in the seventh century and was the dominant red dye for more than 1000 years. It provided the red for the famous British redcoats during the American Revolution. The chemical responsible for the color is alizarin.

Woad, a dye from the European plant Isatis tinctoria, has been found on some of the most ancient textile fragments ever unearthed.

It was used to dye the robes of the high priests of Jerusalem in Biblical times, but it was in Europe that it was extensively cultivated. The dye was obtained by first air-drying the woad plants and grinding them to a powder. The powder was then moistened, placed in a warm, dark place, and stirred frequently. Several weeks of fermentation produced a black paste, from which a blue dye was extracted. The European woad plant had indigo as its main chemical constituent. Woad was the principal European dye for centuries, and dyers became quite skilled at mixing it with other dyes to obtain new colors. Saxon green was the result of dyeing a fabric with woad, then over dyeing it with weld, a yellow dye from another plant. When woad was over dyed with madder, a purple shade resulted.
Indigo, from the plant Indigofera tinctoria, is much richer in the indigo molecule.

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/Indigofera_tinctoria1.jpg

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/Indigo_cake.jpg

This dye worked its way from India to Egypt, the Holy Lands, and eventually Europe, where it arrived around 1200 A.D. Its introduction was bitterly opposed by woad growers. Many laws were passed against use of the “devil’s dye,” and it was widely believed to harm both the cloth and its wearer. So successful was the anti-indigo lobby that the dye did not become established in Europe for more than 500 years. Then King George II chose indigo for the British naval uniform, giving the world “navy blue” forever after. Indigo was one of
the few natural dyes of commercial importance to America. In 1744 Eliza Pickney grew indigo from seeds her British army officer father brought from the East Indies to the colonies. Later, the enterprising young woman persuaded plantation owners around Charleston, S.C., to grow indigo and set up the Winyah Indigo Society. This cooperative shipped great quantities of the dye to England, until introduction of synthetic indigo destroyed the market for the natural product. Today indigo has been largely replaced by other blue dyes, though it is still used as the dye of choice for coloring blue jeans.

Lascars: Indian Sailors on European Ships

Lascars were sailors on the European ships mostly on the British ships when the European powers were locked in great tussle for taking control of the routes and spices found in India. The British finally ousted all others and took control of India, first as East India Company and from 1857’s mutiny onwards for almost 100 years as British India Empire.

The term “Lascar” is derived from Persian word “Lashkar” which means army or a group of soldiers. They worked on the foreign ships under Lascar agreement which gave the owners more powers under which lascars could be shifted from one ship to another and also to work continuously on a single ship.

Lascars were mostly drawn from Silchar in Bengal, Goa and Gujarat coastal areas. The number of Lascars increased sharply on the ships because of their being better adaptability and sturdiness than their European counterparts. So much so that the British Government was alarmed and passed a law according to which a minimum of 75% crew should be whites.

Many of these Lascars settled in England where they intermarried white women despite the scorn shown by many British people. Many of them went out of job and became very poor and lived in squalid conditions.

The ranks of Lascars were different from their counterpart Europeans. For example equivalent of Bosun on the deck was Serang in Lascars, quartermaster’s equivalent was seacunny,  carpenter was mistree, Lascar cook was called Bhandari. Over the years, Lascars developed a unique language of their own.

Lascar’s life has been described most elaborately  by the writer Amitav Ghosh in his great novel “The sea of poppies”.

Dean Mahomet: The founder of First Curry in UK

Sake Dean Mahomed

Sheik Dean Mahomet is credited with being the first Indian to open a Curry House in UK in the year 1810 and it was called Hindoostane Coffee House. It was situated in George Street of central London. It introduced Hookah in England and served Indian culinary dishes. The premises is now a building called Carlton House. To many who are now part of the city’s expansive curry house business, Mahomet was a pioneer. Mr Mahomed’s plan had been to serve “Indianised” British food which would appeal to the Indian aristocracy in London as well as British people who had returned from India.

Portrait of Sake Dean Mahomed (1759-1851), Bri...

“The Indian aristocracy however would not come out to eat in the restaurant because they had chefs at home cooking more authentic food – it was just not a big enough draw to come out.”

He was born in 1759 in Patna then in the Bengal Presidency. He joined the East India Company Army when he was 11 years old. He rose to the rank of captain in the Army. He fought in a number of campaigns and the book is based on his experiences in the army. He resigned from the army in 1782 and two years later arrived in Ireland. He is also the first Indian writer to be published in English. The book was called Travels of Dean Mahomet.

He later moved to Portman Square where he became an assistant to Sir Basil Cochrane at his vapour bath. This is where he is said to have added an Indian treatment, champi (shampooing) or therapeutic massage, to Cochrane’s bath which became very fashionable.

He died in 1851 and was buried in St Nicholas’ churchyard in Brighton.

He was honored for his achievements in 2005. The plaque, which celebrates the achievements of former Westminster residents, was unveiled on Thursday.

_40855264_curryhouse2_203

Man Friday

Man Friday is used as an idiom. It refers to a very loyal servant or his master’s right hand man. Nowadays it is more than that. He is the person who is most efficient and helps his seniors to complete the difficult tasks on time and rescues the Boss from embarrassing situations.

He is one of the main characters in the book Robinson Crusoe written by Daniel Defoe. In this novel, Robinson Crusoe spends many years on an island near Venezuela. He chances upon the custom of cannibalism in which this man was to be killed. Crusoe rescues him and the man becomes indebted to  him for whole of his life.

Since this happened on Friday and Crusoe did not understand the language of the man, he names him as Friday. He remained with him for rest of his life and took part in the rescue of many more victims.

Crusoe converts him to Christianity and teaches him to speak English. He travels with Crusoe to England and ultimately gets killed in some ambush.

Milking the Great

In India, there are always plenty of people with vested interests. They hijack the name of some great man and exploit it for religious, political and other interest by creating the frenzy amongst the gullible people. But ultimate aim is to create a life of riches and comfort for themselves and their coming generations. For this they even don’t spare their own innocent people.

Take for example, Mahatma Gandhi. He tried his best to become apolitical and disband the congress on the logic that its role is over once the country became independent. No one bothered to listen to him because everyone from Jawahar Lal Nehru to Jinnah were busy in hastening the partisan of India on the lines of religion. His death, conspired or caused by Hindu fanatics as is taught, proved even a greater boon to Indian Congress party. It ruled the country in his name for years. So a great man is even more useful as a martyr than when alive as is said of the elephants whose tusk is invaluable.

Not only he, history brims with such cases. BJP of India grabbed the Hindu Gods like Rama, Sita & Krishna. Like Arjun, their leader Lal Krishna Advani whose lifelong and unfulfilled desire is become the Prime Minister of India, went on a Rath (chariot) yatra all over the country causing riots and destruction of a already dilapidated Masjid called Babari Masjid which they claimed have been constructed by destroying a temple of Rama. He shall not rest peacefully till he again regains the glory fro Rama by constructing the temple there.

There is another example of the saint Sai Baba. He lived the life of a Fakir getting his food of two times as alms. He lived in utter simplicity in Shirdi village of Maharashtra. All his life he blessed the people irrespective their caste, creed, social and economic status. Many people who were jealous of his popularity tried to defame him but every time he came out victorious. But now everyone knows about the riches that are showered daily on his statue. There is hard cash, gold and what not. The Prasad is recycled. Thousands of people wait in the queues fro hours to go before the statue and offer whatever is their capacity. So some clever people made a well thought of program and propaganda and publicity about the miracles Baba performed to heal the ill, to free them from the yolk of debt and make their land fertile and make the barren women bear the children, lured the today’s gullible and poor and unhappy people into believing the same for themselves. Rich people come for another reason, to ask the Baba for sheltering them against the law and other problems.

And most of the people living in India are so incredulous and hope to strike it rich without putting in the hard work resort to these shortcuts.

Another famous man is Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar who is termed as Messiah of downtrodden and outcasts of India. The Aryans which created the four classes of people based on the kind of the profession they and their families have been carrying out since generations. Since Aryans are supposed have come from outside and subdued the indigenous people put themselves in upper classes and the vanquishes into menial class for doing the lowest of jobs in the society. Ambedkar fought for them. Himself hailing from humble family, he did hard work and studied and won many merit scholarships and qualified as a lawyer from England. When the India became independent, he became the father of the constitution of India.

The number of such outcaste class people in India is very high and again it was congress first which captured the Ambedkar’s name and exploited it for its votes. Reservations were created for these people in every Government Job and availing of other facilities likes loans for their upliftment and bringing them back into the social fold on equal footing by compensating for the injustice meted out to them over centuries. In reality, only a few of them have benefited from these measures and the lot of most others still is bad.

Then came Mayawati who was even more shrewd. She played the game that why should people from higher castes and classes take in their hands the lot of downtrodden. I am here and I shall improve the lot of such miserables who are from my community, no one else is authorised. So with this brainwashing she and her Godfather Kanshi Ram fonuded a party called Bahujan Samaj Party and won the elections and became the chief minister of the most populous state of India and rules like a queen. Her lifestyle could put the natural queens to shame. She had hundreds of security guards, food tasters, latest luxury vehicles at her disposal.But what the people whose leader she is and whom she promised a good respectable life did get? Nothing but disappoint. Only the sharks benefited along with herself and people close to her.

The list goes on………………………..