In India, clarified butter is the most eminent of all foods. It is mentioned in the Vedas as one of the most important ingredients along with honey for holy rituals. Aryans who entered into Punjab from the West were village dwellers and reared the cattle. This was in contrast to the stable city life the people of the Indus valley civilization lived before them. As the cattle herds required pastures for grazing, these people were always on the move and spread into whole of Punjab and then towards Ganges valley. Many stories and epics revolve around the possession of more cattle which were symbols of wealth. Many groups fought for the possession and even took away the cattle by force or other means.
In addition to being used as an ingredient and frying oil, the fuel of holy lamps and funeral pyres, it is an emblem of purity, an ancient offering to the gods. Ghee (from the Sanskrit for “bright”) was born of necessity. Due to the hot weather, ordinary butter spoils in only ten days in much of the country, while the clarified fat keeps six to eight months. Traditionally, ghee has been made from whole cow or buffalo milk that is soured by lactic acid bacteria into yogurt-like dahi then churned to obtain butter, cream. Today, industrial manufacturers usually start with cream.
The preliminary souring improves both the quantity of butter obtained and its flavor; ghee made from sweet cream is said to taste flat. The butter is heated to 190ºF/90ºC to evaporate its water then the temperature is raised to 250ºF/120ºC to brown the milk solids, which flavors the ghee and generates antioxidant compounds that delay the onset of rancidity. The brown residue is then filtered off (and mixed with sugar to make sweets) leaving the clear liquid ghee.
Cooked green beans can be a vivid green color, or they can turn gradually less colorful, sometimes becoming greyish or brownish. Generally salt is added to the water before boiling vegetables. The reasons given for this include:
- It makes them greener
- It makes them firmer
- It raises the boiling point of water to make them cook faster
- It improves the flavor.
Chemists studied the truth behind these claims and found that first 3 of them are totally false. Adding salt slightly improves the flavor. The increase in the boiling point is insignificant to make any difference in the cooking time.
The color of the beans is dependent on the pH of the cooking water. The green color is due to chlorophyll present in the beans. If the water is acidic, the Magnesium ion bound to the chlorophyll is replaced by hydrogen ions and color is discharged. So depending upon the pH, their will be different degree of color changes.
If you cook the beans in hard water which contain bivalent ions calcium and magnesium, the pectin sugars present in the beans become firmly attached to each other and form a nice three dimensional network and give it a nice firm texture. Soft water on the other hand, dissolves the pectin quickly giving the cooked beans a mushy texture.
Booming & sibilant voice; his neck tilted to left side; runty bodied and very aggressive. You can hear him from a far off distance because of the volume of his voice. Thinks himself very intelligent and clever; voracious eater despite his small physique and very vindictive.
While eating, spills the victuals all around; attaches the diminutive bones of fish to the rim of the plate. He is unrestrained in his speech and criticizes everyone without any impartiality.
Sometimes, he stands for long times leaning on to a door and lost in the thoughts contemplating and thinking ways to multiply his money. He is a miser to the core. He has a single track mind and selfish and always finding ways to further his own interests.
His appetite is legendary; he gulps down very large quantities of the food within minutes like a piranha fish. Nothing remains on the plate. He can digest anything: chapatis, dal, vegetables, kerosene, curd ( many days stale), any type of oil be it vegetable or minerals.
He lacks manners in everyday life; would sit down in front of you on the table while you are sitting on the chair behind.
When he takes breakfast it is sight to behold. In one hand will be his socks and other a chapati and he will eat it walking here and there. Tea in the cups will become cold and stale as he forgets to finish it and busies himself in others tasks.