The Sunway TaihuLight is the fastest supercomputer as of November 2017 ranked number one in the Top500 list. It has a speed of 93 petaflops on LINPACK benchmark rating (1 petaflop=10 raised by 15) . FLOP stands for “floating point per second”.
It is in China and was designed by National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering And Technology. It is located at the National Supercomputing Centre in Wuxi in Jiangsu province of China.
China beat the US in global rankings done by website Top500 which tracks the supercomputers. Benchmark tests are done by experts from Germany and US.
Some 202 supercomputers are in China as compared to 143 in US. China leads not only in numbers but aggregate computing power.
List of top 5 is as under
- Sunway TaihuLight……. China
- Tianhe-2 (Milky way-2)….. China
- Piz Daint… Switzerland
- Gyoukou…… Japan
The fastest supercomputer is being used in climate modelling and science research.
With 1 barrel of oil with 32 API or 7.21pounds per gallon(specific gravity=0.864) , this much can be made and done.
1. Wax for 170 birthday candles or for making 27 crayons
2. Lubricants to make 1 quart of motor oil
3. About 4 pounds of charcoal briquettes
4. Gasoline to drive a medium sized motor car (7.2 km/litre) for 451 kilometres
5. Distillate to drive a large truck (2 km/liter) 64 kms. If jet fuel fraction is included then 80.5 kms.
6. Asphalt to make 3.785 liter of tar for roof patching
7. 70 KW hours of electricity at a power plant
8. Liquified gases such as propane to fill 12 small (14.1 ounces) cylinders.
After all this, there would be enough petrochemical left in the same barrel for making
750 pocket combs
65 plastic drinking cups
11 telephone housing
39 polyester shirts
65 plastic dustpans
23 hula hoops
135 four inches rubber balls
195 one-cup measuring cups
Thanks to Infographics website
Western powers have monopolized the nuclear power and weapons. Russia and US hold 92% of the resources. Treaties like CTBT discriminate against the rest of the countries who want to use nuclear resources even for peaceful purposes. India has not signed this treaty. Supply of nuclear materials is controlled by Nuclear Supplies Group (NSG) which is largely controlled by US and Russia and puts discriminatory conditions on developing nations.This is why they are bitterly opposing nuclear tests by North Korea who is not toeing to their line.
Here are statistics
No. of nuclear tests:
USSR Russia: 715
North Korea: 6
There is no doubt that USA laps up the talent from all over the world. US leads the tally of Nobel prize winners which were introduced in 1901 and Economics prize introduced in 1968. Since then 585 Nobel prizes have been awarded to 922 winners out of which only 49 are women.
Youngest and oldest
Youngest person to receive the Nobel is Malala Yousafzai who received it at the age of 17 years in 2014. Although she belongs to Pakistan, her country may hardly be happy over her winning it. Oldest Nobel laureate is Leonid Hurwicz of US who received the Nobel in 2004 for economics at the age of 90 years.
Countries at the top of list.
Major areas of research leading to Nobel
In physics is particle physics and in chemistry is biochemistry. Research in genetics most hot topic and in economics it is micro economics.
Nobel winners of Indian origin
Ronald Ross: Medicine 1902
Rabindranath Tagore: Literature 1913
C.V.Raman: Physics in 1930
Hargobind Khurana: Medicine in 1968
Mother Teresa: Peace in 1979
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar: Physics in 1983
Amartya Sen: Economics in 1998
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan: Chemistry in 2009
Kailash Satyarthi: Peace in 2014
Cassini probe finally plunged in the rings of Saturn at a speed of 120000 kilometres/hour to say goodbye. But before its glorious end, it help in demystifying so many secrets of the most beautiful planet Saturn.
Some of the milestones:
Launched in 1997, Cassini arrived at an orbit around the planet in 2004. Ended on 15 September 2017. During this time from 2004 to 2017, it took hundreds of thousands pictures. Here are salient achievements:
Distance traveled: 7.9 billion kilometres
Orbits around Saturn: 284
Images sent: 453048
Data compiled: 635 GB
Scientists associated: 5000 from 27 countries
- Discovered 6 out of 60 moons of the planet. Some look like potatoes and others have colourful streaks. Different textures, composition and shapes.
- Discovered Global ocean of salty water beneath ice surface on one of its moons called ENCELADUS. These are pointers towards possibilities of life.
- One season on the planet is of 7 years duration of earth. It entered in winter, spring and summer.
- In one of its moons called Titan , discovered hidden oceans of water and liquid methane.
- Beautiful rings are made of ice. Moons and moonlets interact with rings and feed them with required material to maintain the shape.
Scale of data generated and used is astronomical in the internet. It becomes fruitless to figure out this on yearly, monthly even day basis. The scale is so mammoth that even 1 minute data will send your head spinning.
What happens in 1 minute on internet
- Facebook: 9,00,000 logins
- Whatsapp: 16 million text messages sent
- YouTube: 4.1 million videos viewed
- Google Play Store: 34200 app downloaded
- Instagram: 46200 posts updated
- Twitter: 452000 tweets
- Tinderbox: 990000 swipes
- Emails sent: 156 millions
- Spotify: 40000 hrs listened
- Amazon Echo: 50 devices shipped
- Linkedin: 120 new accounts opened
- GIFs sent via Messenger: 15000
- Snapchat: 1.8 million snaps created
- Spent online: $751522
- Netflix: 70017 hours watched
- Google: 3.5 million search queries.
Can we imagine any food without salt? In addition to the taste it adds, Salt is an essential nutrient for the human body. It is an electrolyte which helps the transmission of the messages from different parts of the body to the brain and vice versa. It is present in the cells. Any imbalance in its concentration whether in the form of deficiency or excess can play havoc with our body. When dehydration occurs, the salt has to be replenished by the intake of oral rehydration solution. It is lost from our bodies during perspiration and blood becomes thicker and our bodies require water.
In addition salt is used as preservative for pickles and other foods. It acts as a barrier to the bacteria which attack the food and decompose it.
Salt comes from the evaporation of the seawater collected in the salt pans. After water evaporates the salt is left behind which is then made to undergo the processes of purification. Those who live in the urban areas and especially near sea coasts never feel it’s importance.
But still there are people living in the remote areas where access to this commodity is impossible. Some of such communities live in Kenya. These tribes, as the saying goes : “Necessity is the mother of invention ” has developed a way to compensate this by extracting the salts from the REED STALKS.
Bunches of river reed are cut into smaller pieces and dried on the hot stones for about a period of 3 days to reduce the inherent moisture. Then the stalks are put on very slow fire. When organic ingredients burn, the ash is left behind. Ash is collected and boiled with water and filtered to get pure salts dissolved in the filtrate while impurities are left behind.
The filtrate is then boiled till only the salt is left behind. Sometimes they add a pinch of pepper powder to add flavor to it.
This picture has been taken from the beautiful website from Luke Duggleby an ace photographer. URL to his website is given below.
(if the picture is not for free use, I will delete it)