Science and technology

Ice hides memories of past climate!!!!

Almost all the elements in the universe are composed of atom siblings though are chemically equivalent but have slightly different weight. Every Atom is composed of equal number of electrons and protons to make it electrically neutral and stable. There are also neutrons which are electrically neutral but have weight almost equal to the proton. Protons and neutrons reside in the centre of atom and called jointly nucleus. This is due to the different numbers of neutrons in these atoms. More the neutrons more shall be the weight of the isotope. Oxygen has two prominent isotopes. The lighter one contains… Read More »Ice hides memories of past climate!!!!

Stomatal Index and Level of Carbondioxide in Atmosphere

There was a time when things started rolling on with advent of photosynthesis by cyano-bacteria or green algae which began preparing its food from carbon dioxide and water which were the only substances available in plenty. They paved the way for introduction of oxygen into the atmosphere and for beginning of life dependent on oxygen. In fact, both the products made by photosynthesis namely sugar and oxygen are used by animals including humans for sustaining their life. We animals are thus the species who learned to make use of the leg work of others to our own advantage. Of course,… Read More »Stomatal Index and Level of Carbondioxide in Atmosphere

Algae: A machine to make energy

In the beginning there was carbon dioxide, water and sunlight on our Earth and its environment. The same carbon dioxide which is the end product of today’s industrial processes. The factories spew carbon dioxide. Scientists are finding ways to fix this carbon dioxide which is the major cause of greenhouse effect and results in trapping the heat and disallows it dissipate and result in Global warming. Whereas in the present climate living beings mostly use oxygen to breakup the food and convert it to glucose and energy, in the beginning only organism that thrived on carbon dioxide was called green… Read More »Algae: A machine to make energy

What can be made from 1 Barrel of Crude Oil

Crude oil is called Black Gold. It is used in making so many products. Crude oil quality is indicated with its API gravity. More is the API of the oil better it is. With 1 barrel of oil with 32 API or 7.21 pounds per gallon(specific gravity=0.864) , following things can be made. Wax for 170 birthday candles or for making 27 crayons. Lubricants to make 1 quart of motor oil About 4 pounds of charcoal briquettes Gasoline to drive a medium sized motor car (7.2 km/litre) for 451 kilometres Distillate to drive a large truck (2 km/liter) 64 kms.… Read More »What can be made from 1 Barrel of Crude Oil

# Hashtag TURNS 13

The humble # hashtag has completed 13 on the twitter in August. An average of 125 million hashtags are tweeted each day. In fact the makers of Twitter had not even added the hashtag feature as it was thought it to be too nerdy for common people. Hashtag was used earlier in c-language in the file header to include external file often present in the library. For example there is a library of files called header files which are readymade pieces of software to be used in the present program. It was the users who discovered that tweeting a term… Read More »# Hashtag TURNS 13

Ammonia Clock

Ammonia is a chemical of great industrial importance as it is used in making the nitrogen based fertilizers. Its demand is so high that when Haber who developed the synthesis of ammonia by combining nitrogen and hydrogen using catalytic method, he was awarded Nobel prize. Here we will discuss its peculiar structure. Nitrogen is the central atom to which 3 hydrogen atoms are attached. But due to sp2 hybridized bonds it is not flat but trigonal prism. A pair of electrons resides on the nitrogen giving it basicity. The ammonia molecule readily undergoes nitrogen inversion at room temperature like an… Read More »Ammonia Clock

Carbon Dating

An element can exist in different forms which have same chemical properties but different atomic weights. They have same atomic mass because number of protons are identical but additional neutrons make then different in weight. Such atoms are called isotopes. For example carbon which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons have an isotope which have 6 protons but 8 neutrons.  They are represented as C14 and C12. Addition of extra neutrons make them less stable and many of them are radioactive. The rate at which a particular atom decays is independent of temperature, light or darkness. During decay the atom… Read More »Carbon Dating

Higgs Boson: The God Particle

How many fundamental particles make all what exists in the universe? In our college days electrons, protons and neutrons were considered the fundamental particles making up the atoms. Atoms combined with each other according to some rules to make molecules which are the building blocks of the universe. As the research to probe into the heart of these fundamental particles advanced with the advent of high speed particle colliders, it has been found that itis after all not as simple as it looks. Only electron withstood the test of being the fundamental particle. It was shown that neutrons and protons… Read More »Higgs Boson: The God Particle

In Search of Chemist’s pure water

Chemist’s pure water which is formulated as H2O exists only in the theory. In the laboratory too, it has to be prepared from the water from the tap. The reason is its high polarity and very high dielectric constant which makes it a potent solvent. It can dissolve inorganic salts, polar organic compounds, acidic, basic and polar gases. It also carries suspended matter like clay particles in the form of colloids. Some of these are loosely suspended and separate out with time by sedimentation and other are stable and has to be destabilized by using defloucculants to settle them out.¬†… Read More »In Search of Chemist’s pure water

Optical Isomerism

Everything is identical about these twins. Number of atoms, type of atoms are same. Only difference is the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms attached to the carbon atoms. There is one more trait of these twins-they are mirror images of one another. They are called stereoisomers. Stereo means spatial. There is a slight differences in the reactivity of these members. One very interesting property of these molecules is that they rotate the light passing through their solution in equal and opposite directions called Levo and Dextro. When such compounds are synthesized in the laboratory, we obtain both… Read More »Optical Isomerism