November 2020

Ice hides memories of past climate!!!!

Almost all the elements in the universe are composed of atom siblings though are chemically equivalent but have slightly different weight. Every Atom is composed of equal number of electrons and protons to make it electrically neutral and stable. There are also neutrons which are electrically neutral but have weight almost equal to the proton. Protons and neutrons reside in the centre of atom and called jointly nucleus. This is due to the different numbers of neutrons in these atoms. More the neutrons more shall be the weight of the isotope. Oxygen has two prominent isotopes. The lighter one contains… Read More »Ice hides memories of past climate!!!!

Rare Foods Series : Ash Yogurt 

Some communities of West Poker County of Kenya make this Yogurt. They add the ash of Cromwo tree known in local dialect as “Mala ya Kienyeji” or “Kamabele Kambo. The ash acts as a disinfectant and gives Yogurt a unique aromatic taste and bright Grey color. Yogurt for men is made from Cow’s (crosses between local breeds and zebù) and for women and children is made from local galla goat’s milk which is rich in nutrients. Raw milk is collected in a calabash, a traditional container made from pumpkin and gourd varieties, and let stand for at least three days.… Read More »Rare Foods Series : Ash Yogurt 


Chillies are not native to India and came to India in 15th century. Chillies are native to Mexico where these were cultivated since 3500 BCE. Christopher Columbus although took voyage to India in search of spices especially Black Pepper reached America in 1493 and thought it to be India. He and his companions also mistook chillies for black pepper. He brought back the chillies pepper with him. Portuguese reached in India in the end of 15th century and introduced it in India. This gave the birth to red hot Goan curries. Cultivation of chillies took India by storm and use… Read More »CHILLIES

Koh-I-Noor: A diamond with troubled history

Koh-I-NoorSize: 105.602 carats (21.1204 g)Colour: Finest whiteCut: CushionDiscovered: Date unknown in India The name means” Mountain of light” in Persian language. Once known as the largest diamond in the world. It is believed to have originated in Andhra together with its double called”Darya-ye-Noor” meaning “Sea of light”. It was originally owned by Kakatiya Dynasty which installed it in a temple as the EYE of the goddess. It has had a troubled history having been stolen, confiscated or taken over as war loot by various invaders. Presently it is a part of the Crown of Queen Elizabeth having been confiscated from… Read More »Koh-I-Noor: A diamond with troubled history

Stomatal Index and Level of Carbondioxide in Atmosphere

There was a time when things started rolling on with advent of photosynthesis by cyano-bacteria or green algae which began preparing its food from carbon dioxide and water which were the only substances available in plenty. They paved the way for introduction of oxygen into the atmosphere and for beginning of life dependent on oxygen. In fact, both the products made by photosynthesis namely sugar and oxygen are used by animals including humans for sustaining their life. We animals are thus the species who learned to make use of the leg work of others to our own advantage. Of course,… Read More »Stomatal Index and Level of Carbondioxide in Atmosphere

Algae: A machine to make energy

In the beginning there was carbon dioxide, water and sunlight on our Earth and its environment. The same carbon dioxide which is the end product of today’s industrial processes. The factories spew carbon dioxide. Scientists are finding ways to fix this carbon dioxide which is the major cause of greenhouse effect and results in trapping the heat and disallows it dissipate and result in Global warming. Whereas in the present climate living beings mostly use oxygen to breakup the food and convert it to glucose and energy, in the beginning only organism that thrived on carbon dioxide was called green… Read More »Algae: A machine to make energy

What can be made from 1 Barrel of Crude Oil

Crude oil is called Black Gold. It is used in making so many products. Crude oil quality is indicated with its API gravity. More is the API of the oil better it is. With 1 barrel of oil with 32 API or 7.21 pounds per gallon(specific gravity=0.864) , following things can be made. Wax for 170 birthday candles or for making 27 crayons. Lubricants to make 1 quart of motor oil About 4 pounds of charcoal briquettes Gasoline to drive a medium sized motor car (7.2 km/litre) for 451 kilometres Distillate to drive a large truck (2 km/liter) 64 kms.… Read More »What can be made from 1 Barrel of Crude Oil

# Hashtag TURNS 13

The humble # hashtag has completed 13 on the twitter in August. An average of 125 million hashtags are tweeted each day. In fact the makers of Twitter had not even added the hashtag feature as it was thought it to be too nerdy for common people. Hashtag was used earlier in c-language in the file header to include external file often present in the library. For example there is a library of files called header files which are readymade pieces of software to be used in the present program. It was the users who discovered that tweeting a term… Read More »# Hashtag TURNS 13

Stars Looking Benevolently Down

This was first published on 2nd December 2008. In Mumbai, people rarely look heavenwards because they don’t have time for this leisurely activity. They always move like a sea of crowds and will be trodden if they look upwards. After the end of the day, they reach homes totally exhausted by effects of  pollution and interminable journeys. There is no space anymore in the city downtown and almost all the middle class has moved to suburbs. In a way, the bridges connecting the Mumbai islands to mainland of India are like the tongues of dragons licking away the land without… Read More »Stars Looking Benevolently Down

Chandragupta Maurya

When Alexander the great entered Indian subcontinent he crossed Hindu Kush occupied Kabul  and reached Indus and crossed it, it was 326 BCE. The land of India thus attracted outsiders since times immemorial. Omphis, the king of Taxila had already submitted without much resistance. Beyond Jhelum river was the land ruled by warlike king of Punjab, Porus. Alexander was with great difficulty able to defeat Porus in a surprise attack. Porus was captured  and brought before his conqueror. Porus was said to be very tall and handsome man. At the time he was brought before Alexander, he had nine wounds… Read More »Chandragupta Maurya